DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/pp2020.01.055

Decentralized systems in logistics: usage overview and security issues

O.O. Letichevsky, S.O. Gorbatuk

Abstract


The directions of the application and use of decentralized (distributed) systems are analyzed using the example of blockchain technology in the international logistics. The prospects and key aspects of the further development of decentralized systems and large databases are considered. The basics of the functioning of smart contracts based on Etherium and Solidity language are considered. The main security problems in the integrated supply chain are analyzed, and directions for improving the monitoring of the continuity of product quality control during movement in a multimodal supply chain are identified. Methods are proposed for strengthening security control in decentralized systems in logistics. The methodology of formal algebraic methods is considered in order to analyze and study the properties of transportations in the interaction of agents of a certain logistic environment.

Problems in programming 2020; 1: 55-73


Keywords


decentralized system; blockchain; smart contract; logistics; Solidity

Full Text:

PDF (Ukrainian)

References


Nakamoto S.: Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System (2008).

Crosby M., Pattanayak P., Verma S., Kalyanaraman V.: Blockchain technology: beyond bitcoin. Appl. Innov. 2016. 2(6).,P. 6-10.

McPhee C., Ljutic A.: Blockchain. Technol. Innov. Manag. Rev. 2017. 7(10). P. 3-5. CrossRef

Electricity journal homepage: blockchain technology: will it make a difference? Electr. J. 2017. 30 (3). P. 86-87. CrossRef

Finextra: Marine Transport International Applies Blockchain to Shipping Supply Chain (2016). URL: https://www.finextra.com/ pressarticle/66223/marine-transportinter-natio¬nal-applies-blockchain-to-shipping-supply-chain

Solesvik M.Z.: Interfirm collaboration in the shipbuilding industry: the shipbuilding cycle perspective. Int. J. Bus. Syst. Res. 2011. 5(4). P. 388-405. CrossRef

Official website of International Maritime Organization. URL: http://www.imo.org.

Den Norske Veritas - DNV GL: Making your Asset Smarter with the Digital Twin. URL: https://www.dnvgl.com/article/making-your-asset-smarter-with-the-digital-twin-63328.

The Economist. The data deluge, 25 Feb 2010. URL: http://www.economist.com/ node/15579717.

Tien J.M.: Internet of connected servgoods: considerations, consequences and concerns. J. Syst. Sci. Syst. Eng. 2015. 24(2). P. 130-167. CrossRef

Splash 24: Dr. Martin Stopford on the Future of Shipping. URL: http://splash247.com/dr-martinstopford-future-shipping

Kondratenko Y.P., Kozlov O.V., Korobko O.V., Topalov A.M.: Internet of things approach for automation of the complex industrial systems. In: ICTERI-2017, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Open Access. 2017. Vol. 1844. P.3-18. URL: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3ff6/4e4a07be1e8c2f0b16f4736397be1405218a.pdf

Tachizawa E.M., Alvarez-Gil M.J., Montes-Sancho M.J.: How "smart cities" will change supply chain management. Supply Chain Manag. Int. J. 2015. 20(3). P. 237-248. CrossRef

Hahn G.J., Packowski J.: A perspective on applications of in-memory analytics in supply chain management. Decis. Support Syst. 2015. 76(1). P.45-52. CrossRef

Lacey M., Lisachuk H., Giannopoulos A., Ogura A.: Shipping smarter: IoT opportuni-ties in transport and logistics. The Internet of Things in Shipping. Dupress-Deloitte. 2015.

Offshore Energy Today: Meet Onboard, the Maritime Internet of Things. URL: http://www.offshoreenergytoday.com/oeec-meet-onboard-the-maritime-internet-of-things/?utm_source=emark&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=daily-update-offshore-energy-today-2017-10-02&uid=207087.

Maritime: Six Maritime Start-Ups That Are Changing the GAME. URL: https://knect365.com/talentandtraining/article/1149354e-68d9-4e74-9f91-a900ac869526/6-maritime-startupsthat-are-changing-the-game.

Den Norske Veritas - DNV GL: Certificates in the blockchain. URL: https://www.dnvgl.com/ assurance/certificates-in-the-blockchain.html.

Den Norske Veritas - DNV GL: Blockchains in the shipping world. URL: https://www.dnvgl.com/expert-story/mariti-me¬-impact/Blockchains-in-the-shipping-world.html.

Maersk and IBM Introduce TradeLens Blockchain Shipping Solution. Aug. 9, 2018. URL: https://newsroom.ibm.com/2018-08-09-Maersk-and-IBM-Introduce-TradeLens-Blockchain-Shipping-Solution.

TradeLens - official website. URL: https://www.tradelens.com.

Forbes. IBM-Maersk Blockchain Platform Adds 92 Clients As Part Of Global Launch. URL: https://www.forbes.com/sites/michael-delcastillo/2018/08/09/ibm-maersk-blockchain-platform-adds-92-clients-as-part-of-global-launch-1/#c469d5068a4a.

Сoindesk. IBM and Maersk Struggle to Sign Partners to Shipping Blockchain. Oct 26, 2018. URL: https://www.coindesk.com/ibm-blockchain-maersk-shipping-struggling

Сomputerworld. Maersk adds two big shipping firms to its blockchain ledger. 29 травня 2019р. URL: https://www.compu-terworld.com/article/3398923/maersk-adds-two-big-shipping-firms-to-its-blockchain-ledger.html

ТС. IBM-Maersk blockchain shipping consortium expands to include other major shipping companies. URL: https://techcrunch.com/2019/05/28/ibm-maersk-blockchain-shipping-consortium-expands-to-include-other-major-shipping-companies/

TradeLens official brochure. Solution brief. Edition two.

SupplyChain Dive. 9 ocean carriers, terminal operators join new blockchain initiative to rival TradeLens. Nov. 7, 2018. URL: https://www.supplychaindive.com/news/ocean-carriers-new-blockchain-cosco-cma-cgm/541630/

CargoSmart. Global Shipping Business Network. URL: https://www.cargosmart.ai/en/

Globe news wire. Top Ocean Carriers and Terminal Operators Initiate Blockchain Consortium. November 06, 2018. URL: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/11/06/1646014/0/en/Top-Ocean-Carriers-and-Terminal-Operators-Initiate-Blockchain-Consortium.html

Supply Chain Dive. Maersk blockchain solution TradeLens adds ZIM. April 22, 2019. URL: https://www.supplychaindive.com/ news/maersk-blockchain-solution-tradelens-adds-zim/553146/

Ball B. Reducing Global Logistics Cost with Benchmarking and Shipping Container Pricing Transparency. Aberdeen Group. 2016.

Dhanji T.: Blockchain - Where Oil and Gas Traders Dare to Trade. Ernest Young Publications. 2017. URL: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/blockchain-where-oilgas-traders-dare-tread-talib-dhanji

Freight Waves.: Swiss firm brings blockchain to the biopharmaceutical cold chain. 02/23/2018. URL: https://www.freightwa-ves.com/news/blockchain/skycellblockchaincoldchain.

John G. Smith.: Block by Block: How blockchain will transform trucking. 18.01.2018. URL: https://www.todaystruc-king.¬com/block-block-blockchain-will-transform-trucking/

Ana Alexandre.: New Blockchain-Based Supply Chain System Is Presented by Microsoft and Adents. URL: https://cointelegraph.com/news/new-blockchain-based-supply-chain-system-is-presented-by-microsoft-and-ardents

Suku. The future of supply chain is here. URL: https://www.suku.world/

DHL Trend Research. URL: https://www.logistics.dhl/content/dam/dhl/global/core/documents/pdf/glo-core-blockchain-trend-report.pdf

OriginTrail. URL: https://origintrail.io

Shipchain. The end-to-end logistics platform of the future: trustless, transparent tracking. URL: https://shipchain.io/

Nick Szabo - Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets. URL: www.fon.hum.uva.nl

Nick Szabo. Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks.

Welcome to ERights.Org. URL: erights.org

A Formal Language for Analyzing Contracts. URL: vwh.net

Gideon Greenspan.: Smart contracts make slow blockchains. URL: https://www.multichain.com/blog/2015/11/smart-contracts-slow-blockchains

StackEdit Viewer / Benoit Schweblin. URL: https://stackedit.io/viewer#!url=https://gist.githubusercontent.com/gavofyork/31b35cd2252a00d0d057/raw/16de06189d2175d2e31b300f1f8531e20c927635/solidity-original

Solidity - Solidity 0.2.0 documentation. URL: https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

Zigurat. Blockchain Success cases: Supply Chain and Logistics. URL: https://www.e-zigurat.com/innovation-school/blog/blockchain-success-cases/

Robert Hackett.: Walmart and 9 Food Giants Team Up on IBM Blockchain Plans. URL: https://fortune.com/2017/08/22/walmart-blockchain-ibm-food-nestle-unilever-tyson-dole/

Map of cases of African swine fever in Ukraine and quarantine areas. [In Ukrainian] URL: http://www.asf.vet.ua/index.php/ asfinukraine

The State Service of Ukraine for Food Safety and Consumer Protection: African swine fever? [In Ukrainian] URL: http://www.asf.vet.ua/index.php/purpose-project/about-asf/124-african-swine-fever

Ukrinform. The butterfly invasion is the pay for human indiscretion. 03.06.2019. [In Ukrainian] URL: https://www.ukrinform.ua/ rubric-economy/2713807-nasesta-metelikiv-rozplata-za-ludsku-nenazerlivist.html

Petropavlivka.City. Mykolayivka is attacked by a caterpillar. 05.06.2019. [In Ukrainian] URL: https://petropavlivka.city/read/ experiance/33845/mikolaivku-atakue-gusin

Carnet Maritime. Collision CMA CGM Verlaine et Odessa Star. 04.04.2010 URL: http://carnet-maritime.com/accidents-naufrages/collision-cma-cgm-verlaine-et-odessa-star.html

Information portal "Transport business of Ukraine". On the situation of collision of the container carrier Verlaine and the ship Odessa Star on April 4 in the Marmara Sea - International Legal Service. [In Ukrainian] URL: http://tbu.com.ua/news/k_situatsii_ stolknoveniia_konteinerovoza_verlaine_i_teplohoda_odessa_star_4_aprelia_v_mramornom_more___mejdunarodnaia_uridicheskaia_slujba_foto.html

Cristina Commendatore.: Blockchain in trucking: What about the middlemen? 20.10.2017

URL: https://www.fleetowner.com/ electronic-security/blockchain-trucking-what-about-middlemen

Robert Hackett.: IBM and Maersk Are Creating a New Blockchain Company. 16.01.2017 URL: https://fortune.com/ 2018/01/16/ibm-blockchain-maersk-company/

Winnesota.: How blockchain is revolutionizing the world of transportation and logistics. URL: https://www.winnesota.com/ blockchain

Temperature Measurement in the Fish Industry. URL: http://www.fao.org/3/x5992e/ X5992e01.htm

Yang, J., Chen, T., Wu, M., Xu, Z., Liu, X., Lin, H., Yang, M., Long, F., Zhang, L., Zhou, L. 2009. MODIST: transparent model checking of unmodified distributed systems. URL: https://www.usenix.org/legacy/events/nsdi09/tech/full_papers/yang/yang_html/index.html

Spin. URL: http://spinroot.com/spin/ whatispin.html

Killian, C., Anderson, J. W., Jhala, R., Vahdat, A. 2006. Life, death, and the critical transition: finding liveness bugs in system code. URL: http://www.macesystems.org/ papers/MaceMC_TR.pdf

Lamport, L., Yu, Y. 2011. TLC-the TLA+ model checker. URL: http:// research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/lamport/tla/tlc.html

Wilcox J. R., Woos D., Panchekha P., Tatlock Z., Wang X., Ernst M. D., Anderson T. 2015. Verdi: a framework for implementing and formally verifying distributed systems. Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2015 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation: 357-368. URL: https://homes.cs.washington.edu/ ~mernst/pubs/verify-distsystem-pldi2015-abstract.html CrossRef

Towards Formal Reliability Analysis of Logistics Service Supply Chains using Theorem Proving Waqar Ahmed , Osman Hasan , and Sofi'ene Tahar EPiC Series in Computing Volume 40, 2016, Pages 1-14 IWIL-2015. 11th International Workshop on the Implementation of Logics

Li Y., Yi H. Research on the Inherent Reliability and the Operational Reliability of the Supply Chain. u- and e-Service, Science and Technology. 2014. 7(1). Р. 104-112. CrossRef

Letichevsky A., Letychevskyi O., Peschanenko V. "Insertion Modeling and Its Applications", Computer Science Journal of Moldova. 2016. Vol. 24. Issue 3. Р. 357-370.

Letichevsky A. and Gilbert D. "Interaction of agents and environments," in: Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Technique, LNCS 1827 (D. Bert and C. Choppy, eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1999.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/pp2020.01.055

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.