Method of information obtaining from ontology on the basis of a natural language phrase analysis

A.A. Litvin, V.Yu. Velychko, V.V. Kaverynskyi

Abstract


A method for phrases analyzing in natural languages of inflective type (Ukrainian and Russian) has been developed.  The method allows one to outline main expressed ideas and groups of words in the text by which they are stated. The semantic trees of propositions formed in this way, each of which expresses one specific idea, are a convenient source material for constructing queries to the ontology in the SPARQL language. The analysis algorithm is based on the following sequence of basic steps: word tokenize, determining of marker words and phrases, identifying available type of proposition, identifying nouns groups, building a syntactic graph of a sentence, building semantic trees of propositions based on existing types of propositions, substituting parameters from semantic trees of propositions in the corresponding SPARQL query templates. The choice of an appropriate template depends on the type of proposition expressed by a given semantic tree of a proposition. The sets of concepts received as an answer are tied as corresponding answers to the previously defined semantic tree of proposition. In case of non-receipt of information from the ontology, the reduction of noun groups is carried out to express more general concepts and the building queries using them. This allows us to get some answer, although not as accurate as when we use the full noun group. The use of SPARQL query templates requires an a priori known ontology structure, which is also proposed in this paper. Such a system is applicable for dialogue using chat-bots or for automatically receiving answers to questions from the text.

Problems in programming 2020; 2-3: 322-330


Keywords


ontology; SPARQL; text analysis; noun group; syntactic graph; semantic tree of a proposition; NLP; NLU

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