60 Years of Databases (part four)

V.A. Reznichenko


The article provides an overview of research and development of databases since their appearance in the 60s of the last century to the present time. The following stages are distinguished: the emer- gence formation and rapid development, the era of relational databases, extended relational data- bases, post-relational databases and big data. At the stage of formation, the systems IDS, IMS, Total and Adabas are described. At the stage of rapid development, issues of ANSI/X3/SPARC database architecture, CODASYL proposals, concepts and languages of conceptual modeling are highlighted. At the stage of the era of relation-al databases, the results of E. Codd’s scientific activities, the theory of dependencies and normal forms, query languages, experimental research and development, optimization and standardiza- tion, and transaction management are revealed. The extended relational databases phase is devot- ed to describing temporal, spatial, deductive, ac- tive, object, distributed and statistical databases, array databases, and database machines and data warehouses. At the next stage, the problems of post-relational databases are disclosed, namely, NOSQL-, NewSQL- and ontological databases. The sixth stage is devoted to the disclosure of the causes of occurrence, characteristic properties, classification, principles of work, methods and technologies of big data. Finally, the last section provides a brief overview of database research and development in the former Soviet Union.

Prombles in programming 2022; 2: 57-95


Database types; hierarchical; network; relational; navigational; temporal; spatial; spatio-temporal; spatio-network; moving objects; deductive; active; object-oriented; object- relational; distributed; parallel; arrays; statistical; multidimensional


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