Problems associated with creating special software for simulating of human physiological responses to dynamic accelerations

R.D. Grygoryan


Under extreme accelerations, human physiological mechanisms cannot provide adequate circulation. Special methods and devices protecting pilot’s brain and eye functionality have been proposed but their efficiency is individual and depends on pilot’s skills. Currently, the lonely technology to safely acquire and test the necessary skills is based on use of special centrifuges. However, lack of adequate data about physiological and biomechanical events are two main causes worsening the training results. Special computer simulators, capable to model and visualize the main mechanical and physiological effects occurring under dynamic accelerations, could increase the effectiveness of future pilot’s training process. This publication aims to define fundamental problems concerned with creating the required software. There exist two main groups of problems. The first group is concerned with the necessity to create basic mathematical models quantitatively describing both the physiological events and effects induced by protective maneuvers. Here special logical procedures, individualizing the basic physiological models, have to be proposed. The second group of problems is predominantly technical and associated with the necessity of special user interface (SUI) development. SUI must be subdivided into two functional sections – one for preparing a single computer experiment (simulation), and another – for analyzing the results of simulation. An experiment preparation includes the following events: i) a preliminary tuning of models according to biometrical data; ii) a setting of acceleration profile; iii) a choosing of protective algorithms and tools (or without protections); iv) a choosing of forms for results storage. Graphs presenting the dynamics of input and output variables are the main forms while the table forms are also included. The user (trainer or trainee) will be able to retrieve from the memory graphs of previous simulations to compare the effectiveness of additional protective elements. The software must be autonomic for the Windows platform.

Prombles in programming 2024; 1: 30-37


human extreme physiology; quantitative models; simulator; training; information technology

Full Text:



Burton, R.R.; Whinnery, J.E. Biodynamics: Sustained acceleration. In Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine, 3rd ed.; DeHart, R.L., Davis, J.R., Eds.; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2002; pp. 122–153.

Slungaard E., McLeod J., Green, N.D.C., Kiran A., Newham D.J., Harridge S.D.R. Incidence of g-induced loss of consciousness and almost loss of consciousness in the Royal Air Force. Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 2017, 88, 550–555.

Newman, D.G. The cardiovascular system at high Gz. In High G Flight: Physiological Effects and Countermeasures, 1st ed.; Newman, D.G., Ed.; Ashgate: Farnham, UK, 2015; pp. 57–72.

Park, M.; Yoo, S.; Seol, H.; Kim, C.; Hong, Y. Unpredictability of fighter pilots’ G duration by anthropometric and physiological characteristics. Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 2015, 86, 307–401.

Yun, C.; Oh, S.; Shin, Y.H. AGSM proficiency and depression are associated with success of high-G training in trainee pilots. Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 2019, 90, 613–617.

Polock,R.D.,Hodkinson,P.D.,&Smith,T.G.OhG:Thex,yandzofhumanphysiologicalresponsestoacceleration. Experimental Physiology, 2021,106,2367–2384.

Albery, W. B. Acceleration in other axes affects +Gz tolerance: Dynamic centrifuge simulation of agile flight. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2004,75(1), 1–6.

Burton, R., & Whinnery, J. Operational G-induced loss of consciousness: Something old; something new. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 1985,56(8), 812–817.

Cao, X.-S., Wang, Y.-C., Xu, L., Yang, C.-B., Wang, B., Geng, J., Gao, Y., Wu, Y. H., Wang, X. Y., Zhang, S., & Sun, X.-Q. Visual symptoms and G-induced loss of consciousness in 594 Chinese Air Force aircrew— A questionnaire survey. Military Medicine, 2012, 177(2), 163–168. https://doi. org/10.7205/milmed-d-11-00003.

Chung, K. Y. Cardiac arrhythmias in F-16 pilots during aerial combat maneuvers (ACMS): A descriptive study focused on G-level acceleration. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2001,72(6), 534– 538.

Eiken, O., Bergsten, E., & Grönkvist, M. G-Protection mechanisms afforded by the anti-G suit abdominal bladder with and without pressure breathing. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2011. 82(10), 972–977.

Eiken, O., Keramidas, M. E., Taylor, N. A. S., Grönkvist, M., & Gronkvist, M. Intraocular pressure and cerebral oxygenation during prolonged headward acceleration. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2017,117(1), 61–72.

Grönkvist, M., Bergsten, E., & Eiken, O. Lung mechanics and transpulmonary pressures during unassisted pressure breathing at high Gz loads. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2008,79(11), 1041–1046.

Henderson, A. C., Sá, R. C., Theilmann, R. J., Buxton, R. B., Prisk, G. K., & Hopkins, S. R. The gravitational distribution of ventilationperfusion ratio is more uniform in prone than supine posture in the normal human lung. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2013, 115(3), 313–324. https: //

MacDougall, J. D., McKelvie, R. S., Moroz, D. E., & Buick, F. The effects of variations in the anti-G straining maneuver on blood pressure at +Gz acceleration. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 1993,64(2), 126–131.

Sundblad, P., Kölegård, R., Migeotte, P. F., Delière, Q., & Eiken, O. The arterial baroreflex and inherent G tolerance.EuropeanJournal of Applied Physiology, 2016,116(6), 1149–1157.

Whiny,J.E.,&Forster,E.The+Gz-induced loss of consciousness curve. Extreme Physiology and Medicine, 2013,2(1),19.

Grygoryan, R.D., Kochetenko, E.M., Informational technology for modeling of fighters medical testing procedures by centrifuge accelerations. Selection &Training Advances in Aviation: AGARD Conference Proceedings 588; Prague, 1996. May 25-31, PP3,1-12.

Grygoryan, R.D., 2002. High sustained G-tolerance model development.STCU#P-078 EOARD# 01-8001 Agreement: Final Report. 66p.

Grygoryan R.D. Problem-oriented computer simulators for solving of theoretical and applied tasks of human physiology. Problems of programming. 2017, №3, 102-111.

Grygoryan R.D. Modeling of mechanisms providing the overall control of human circulation. Advances in Human Physiology Research, 2022,4, 5 – 21,


  • There are currently no refbacks.